Data And Figures for Climate Change Effects
Climate change has an impact on health’s social and environmental factors, such as clean air, clean water, enough food, and safe housing.
Climate change is anticipated to result in an additional 250,000 deaths each year between 2030 and 2050 owing to starvation, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress.
By 2030, the cost of direct health harm (excluding costs in health-determinating areas like agriculture and water and sanitation) is expected to be between US$ 2 billion and US$ 4 billion.
If they do not receive support, areas with weak health infrastructure, which are largely in developing nations, will be the least able to plan for and respond to these changes.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through better transportation, food, and energy choices can benefit health, particularly by reducing air pollution.
Changes in the climate
Human activity, notably fossil fuel usage, has emitted enough CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere over the last 50 years to trap more heat in the lower atmosphere and alter the global climate.
The planet has warmed by 0.85 degrees Celsius in the last 130 years. Every decade from 1850 has been warmer than the previous one in the last 30 years .
The sea level is rising, glaciers are melting, and weather patterns are shifting. Extreme weather is growing more powerful and common.
What are the effects of climate change on human health?
Although some localized benefits of global warming, such as reduced winter mortality in temperate zones and enhanced food production in some locations, the overall health impacts of climate change are projected to be quite bad. Climate change has an impact on health’s social and environmental factors, such as clean air, clean water, enough food, and safe housing.
Extremely hot weather
Extreme air temperatures are a direct cause of death from cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, particularly in the elderly. In the summer of 2003, for example, a European heat wave resulted in 70,000 more deaths .
Increased levels of ozone and other air pollutants, which aggravate cardiovascular and respiratory ailments, are also a result of high temperatures.
Extreme heat also raises pollen and other allergy levels. Asthma, which affects 300 million people worldwide, might be triggered by them. This strain is projected to grow as temperatures continue to climb.
Natural disasters and variations in rainfall
Since the 1960s, the number of weather-related natural disasters has more than tripled globally. Each year, catastrophic calamities claim the lives of about 60,000 people, the majority of whom live in underdeveloped countries.
Increasingly severe weather events and rising sea levels will destroy homes, medical facilities, and other important services. Within 60 kilometers of the sea, more than half of the world’s population lives. Many people may be compelled to relocate, raising the risk of health problems ranging from mental illness to communicable infections.
Increased rainfall variability is anticipated to have an impact on freshwater supplies, and freshwater shortages may undermine hygiene and raise the risk of diarrheal illnesses, which kill over 760,000 children under the age of five each year. Water scarcity can lead to drought and hunger in extreme instances. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts regionally and worldwide by the end of the twenty-first century .
Flood frequency and intensity are also on the rise, and extreme precipitation events are anticipated to become more common and intense throughout this century . They pollute freshwater supplies, raising the risk of waterborne infections and providing breeding grounds for disease-carrying insects like mosquitos. They also result in drowning and bodily injuries, as well as property damage and disruption of medical and health services.
In many of the world’s poorest countries, rising temperatures and erratic rainfall are predicted to diminish staple food supply. Malnutrition and undernutrition, which already kill 3.1 million people per year, will become more common as a result of this.
Climate change has a significant impact on diseases spread by water, insects, snails, and other cold-blooded creatures.
Climate change will most likely lengthen the transmission seasons of major vector-borne diseases and modify their geographic distribution. For example, schistosomiasis, a snail-borne illness, is anticipated to spread throughout a large portion of China .
Malaria is significantly influenced by the weather. Malaria, which is spread by mosquitos of the species Anopheles, kills over 600,000 people each year, the majority of whom are African children under the age of five. The mosquitoes that transmit dengue fever, Aedes mosquitoes, are likewise particularly sensitive to changes in the weather. Climate change, according to studies, is expected to increase the risk of dengue transmission.
Measuring the impact on one’s health
It is only possible to estimate the health implications of climate change. However, according to a WHO assessment that considers only some of the potential health impacts and assumes continued economic growth and health progress, climate change is expected to cause an additional 250,000 deaths annually between 2030 and 2050, with 38,000 deaths due to elderly people being exposed to heat, 48,000 deaths due to diarrhea, 60,000 deaths due to malaria, and 95,000 deaths due to child malnutrition.  The following assumptions underpin the evaluation:  Climate change’s health effects are anticipated to increase the likelihood of dengue fever transmission.
Who is in danger?
Climate change will affect all people, but some are more vulnerable than others. Small island developing states and other coastal locations, as well as megacities, mountainous and polar regions, are particularly vulnerable.
Children, particularly those in poor countries, are among the most sensitive to the health risks that ensue, and they will be exposed to the consequences for the longest time. The elderly and those with various ailments or pre-existing conditions are also predicted to be affected more severely.
If they do not receive aid, areas with poor health infrastructure, mostly in developing countries, will have the most trouble planning and responding.
The World Health Organization’s response
Individual policies and initiatives can cut greenhouse gas emissions while also providing significant health advantages. Encouragement of safe use of public transportation and active forms of travel – such as walking or cycling as an alternative to private vehicles – could, for example, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and the burden of residential and air pollution, which cause an estimated 4.3 million and 3.7 million deaths annually, respectively.
A new WHO work plan on climate change and health was agreed by the World Health Assembly in 2015. The following elements are included in this plan:
Partnerships: collaborating with other UN agencies and ensuring that health is properly represented in the climate change agenda.
Provide and disseminate knowledge about the hazards that climate change poses to human health, as well as the opportunity to promote health by lowering carbon emissions.
Science and evidence: establishing a worldwide research agenda and coordinating evaluations of current scientific evidence on the relationship between climate change and health.
Supporting the implementation of the public health response to climate change: assisting countries in developing capacity to decrease climate change-related health vulnerability and improve health by lowering carbon emissions.